In 2014, Ester Sleddens and colleagues introduced the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (CGPQ). The CGPQ was developed to assess general parenting as most instruments only assesses limited aspects of parenting and few high quality measures exist. Developing a single parenting questionnaire to assess the key parenting constructs allows capturing the complexity of parenting by giving the opportunity to use cluster-analytic approaches to define so-called parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting, permissive/indulgent parenting, uninvolved/neglectful parenting, and authoritarian parenting).

In the literature, we identified five key parenting constructs (i.e., Nurturance, Structure, Behavioral Control, Coercive Control, and Overprotection) that describe the major individual differences in general parenting behavior. The figure below displays our comprehensive general parenting model. Please click on the (sub)constructs for a description.

The CGPQ was developed using a mixed method approach, including the development of an item bank based on the five-factor parenting model, cognitive interviews of the items and response options and author review to inform the modification, deletion and/or replacement of items of the initial 145-item version of the CGPQ and advanced statistical analyses (i.e., Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Item Response Modeling) to validate the instrument (click here for the corresponding publication). This resulted in a 62-item questionnaire which was reviewed again, with subsequent rewording of some items to improve clarity or simplify the language, and 23 additional items were added for better coverage of some of the constructs. The resulting 85-item CGPQ was tested (the corresponding publication is currently submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal) and the structural properties of the questionnaire was supported, with some minor adaptations. The two described validation studies both used different cultural samples (i.e., Dutch, Belgian and US sample).

Coercive ControlBehavioral ControlOverprotectionStructureNurturance

Source five-factor parenting model: Sleddens EFC, O’Connor TM, Watson KB, Hughes SO, Power TG, Thijs C, de Vries NK, Kremers SPJ. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2014; 11:15