Frequently Asked Questions


Our questionnaire is intended for use in research only. Our focus is on normal development, so the questionnaires are not designed for use in diagnostics. However, the questionnaire may be helpful in the context of a therapeutic relationship, or in other applied settings, but as from now we cannot make any claims regarding their effectiveness for uses other than research.

We do not charge researchers to use the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire. We believe that free exchange of scientific information is essential for further improvement of the instrument.

Different forms of the CGPQ are accessible. Please visit the instrument description page to see what versions are available (e.g., length, ages, languages).

Please let us know if you are going to use our questionnaire for your studies. If so, please let us know by completing the contact form.

We highly appreciate that you share with us the results of your studies.

The Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire has been translated into a number of languages. Please visit the instrument description page to learn if the instrument is available in the language you desire. In addition to this list, the instrument has been translated to other languages. Please use the contact form to learn about translation efforts currently being taken and if you intend to translate our instrument in a language that is not yet available. One prerequisite is that you give us a copy of the translated questionnaire and allow us to disseminate it on our website.

Note: We cannot offer full assurance regarding the quality of the translations other than Dutch or English. Our goal, along with those who translated to languages other than Dutch or English, is to be as accurate as possible. We recommend making use of back-translations and cognitive interviewing with people of the target group to help achieve the highest quality as possible.

The correct citations for the different forms of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire (as of October 2017) are as follows.

85-item CGPQ (caregivers of 5-13 year old children)
Sleddens EFC, O’Connor TM, Watson KB, Hughes SO, Power TG, Thijs C, de Vries NK, Kremers SPJ. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2014; 11:15.

Sleddens EFC, Mâsse LC, Power TG, O’Connor TM, Thijs C, De Decker A, Michels N, Kremers SPJ. Validation of the 85-item Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire: a cluster-analytic approach to define parenting style and associations with child screen time. Submitted.

69-item CGPQ (caregivers of 1-4 year old children)
Van der Horst K, Sleddens EFC. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers’ eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach. PLoS One 2017; 12:e0178149.

48-item CGPQ (adolescent-report)
Dorus WM, van Assema P, Sleddens EFC, de Vries NK, Kremers SPJ. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence. Appetite 2015; 87, 184-191.

Scoring information of the different forms of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire is available on the instrument description page. The scoring process is the same for all forms.


We recommend that you measure all five parenting constructs. We would advise to use latent class analyses or mixture modeling (cluster analyses) in order to assess the contribution and interaction of all five parenting constructs, which will allow for better differentiation among parenting styles. As such, different combinations of the five parenting constructs may be used to characterize different clusters of parenting that may probably correspond to Baumrind's classic three to four-fold parenting styles. However, depending on your research question(s) you may select one or more of the five parenting constructs for your study. Please be aware that very short forms have been developed, although not validated yet, to assess all five parenting constructs in different age samples (see the instrument description page).

To identify clusters of parenting we would advise to use cluster analysis (latent class analyses or mixture modeling) on those five parenting constructs. Those clusters possibly resemble the three/four parenting styles identified by Baumrind and others. For instance, a cluster of parents scoring high on Nurturance, Structure and Behavioral Control and low on Coercive Control and Overprotection could be classified as being authoritative. This approach will allow for a better differentiation among parenting styles.